Please completely paraphrase the following chapter outline I. Postwar Europe and the Origins of the Cold War A. The Legacies of the Second World War 1. In the summer of 1945 Europe lay in ruins: fighting had destroyed cities and landscapes and had obliterated buildings, factories, farms, rail tracks, roads, and bridges. 2. About 50 million human beings perished in the Second World War: 20 million Soviet soldiers and civilians were killed; 9–11 million noncombatants died in Nazi concentration camps, including 6 million Jews; one out of every five Poles died; and more than 400,000 U.S. soldiers died in the European and Pacific campaigns. 3. Tens of millions were left homeless—25 million in the Soviet Union and 20 million in Germany alone, joined by countless French, Czechs, Poles, Italians, and others. 4. These displaced persons or DPs—their numbers increased by concentration camp survivors, released prisoners of war, and hundreds of thousands of orphaned children—searched for food and shelter. 5. Because going home was not always the best option for DPs, the newly established United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) opened over 760 DP camps and spent $10 billion to house, feed, clothe, and repatriate the refugees between 1945 and 1947. 6. Postwar authorities were also left to deal with the crimes committed by the Nazis; almost 100,000 Germans and Austrians were convicted for wartime crimes, and many more were investigated or indicted. 7. Collaborators, those non-Germans who had assisted the occupying forces, were also punished. 8. In Germany, Allied occupation governments set up denazification procedures meant to identify former Nazi Party members and punish those responsible for the worst crimes of the National Socialist state. 9. At the Nuremberg trials (1945–1946), an international military tribunal organized by the four Allied powers—the Soviet Union, the United States, Britain, and France—tried and sentenced twenty-two high-ranking Nazi military and civilian leaders. 10. In the Western zone of occupation, the huge numbers of individuals implicated in Nazi crimes, West German opposition to the proceedings, and the need for stability in the looming Cold War made thorough denazification impractical. 11. In the Soviet zone, about 45,000 former party officials, upper-class industrialists, and large landowners were identified as Nazis and sentenced to prison or death. 12. The revelation of Nazi barbarism, the destruction of so many lives, and the great disruptions of the postwar years had deeply shaken European confidence. B. The Peace Accords and Cold War Origins 1. Hostility between the Eastern and Western superpowers, which began when the threat of Nazi Germany disappeared, was the sad but logical outgrowth of military developments, wartime agreements, and long-standing political and ideological differences. 2. In the early phases of the Second World War, the Americans and the British made military victory their highest priority and focused on the policy of unconditional surrender to solidify their alliance with the Soviet Union. 3. The Americans and the British avoided discussion of Stalin’s war aims and the shape of the postwar world until a conference at Teheran in November 1943 between Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill, when such a discussion could no longer be postponed. 4. Stalin, concerned that the Soviet Union was bearing the brunt of the fighting, asked his allies to relieve his armies by opening a second front in France. 5. Roosevelt’s consent to an American-British frontal assault through France meant that the Soviet and the American-British armies would come together in defeated Germany along a north-south line and that only Soviet troops would liberate eastern Europe. 6. When the Big Three met again in February 1945 at Yalta, advancing Soviet armies were within a hundred miles of Berlin, while the temporarily stalled American-British forces had yet to cross the Rhine into Germany. 7. Given the strong Soviet position and the weak American position at the time, an increasingly sick and apprehensive Roosevelt could do nothing but double his bet on Stalin’s peaceful intentions. 8. The Allies agreed at the Yalta Conference that each of the victorious powers would occupy a separate zone of Germany, and that the Germans would pay heavy reparations to the Soviet Union. 9. They also agreed in an ambiguous compromise that eastern European governments were to be freely elected but pro-Russian. 10. The Yalta compromise over elections in eastern Europe broke down almost immediately, as the advancing Soviets formed coalition governments that included Social Democrats and other leftist parties, but reserved key government posts for Moscow-trained communists. 11. At the postwar Potsdam Conference of July 1945, the long-avoided differences over eastern Europe finally blew open when Roosevelt’s successor, the more determined Harry Truman, demanded immediate free elections throughout eastern Europe and Stalin refused point-blank. 12. Mutual distrust, anxious security concerns, and antagonistic desires for economic and territorial control now destroyed the Allies’ former partnership. 13. Stalin, who had lived through two enormously destructive German invasions, was determined to establish a defensive buffer zone of sympathetic states around the Soviet Union and at the same time expand the reach of communism and the Soviet state. 14. The United States, for its part, wished to maintain liberal democracy and free-market capitalism in western Europe and quickly showed it was willing to use its vast political, economic, and military power to maintain predominance in its own sphere of influence. C. West Versus East 1. In May 1945, as the fighting ended, Truman abruptly cut off all aid to the ailing Soviet Union, and in October he declared that the United States would never recognize any government established by force against the free will of its people. 2. In March 1946 former British prime minister Churchill ominously informed an American audience that an “iron curtain” had fallen across the continent, dividing Germany and all of Europe into two antagonistic camps. 3. Recognizing that communists could not take power in free elections, Stalin purged noncommunist elements from the coalition governments set up after the war and established Soviet-style one-party communist dictatorships. 4. Stalin’s seizure of power in Czechoslovakia in February 1948 was particularly antidemocratic and greatly strengthened Western fears of limitless communist expansion. 5. The large, well-organized Communist Parties of France and Italy returned to what they called the “struggle against capitalist imperialism” at the same time that communist revolutionaries were waging bitter civil wars in Greece and China. 6. In the spring of 1947, when it appeared to many Americans that the Soviet Union was determined to export communism by subversion around the world, the United States responded with the Truman Doctrine, aimed at “containing” communism to areas already occupied by the Red Army. 7. The United States, President Truman promised, would use diplomatic, economic, and even military means to resist the expansion of communism anywhere on the globe. 8. The U.S. government restructured its military to meet the Soviet threat, pouring money into defense spending and testing nuclear weapons. 9. The American determination to enforce containment hardened when the Soviets exploded their own atomic bomb in 1949. 10. In 1947, recognizing that an economically and politically stable western Europe could be an effective block against the popular appeal of communism, U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall offered Europe economic aid—the Marshall Plan—to help it rebuild. 11. The Marshall Plan was one of the most successful foreign aid programs in history, giving about $13 billion in aid (over $200 billion in today’s dollars) to fifteen western European nations, thus setting the European economy on the path to recovery. 12. In 1949 the Soviets established the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) to rebuild the East Bloc independently of the West. 13. In June 1948 the Western allies replaced the currency in West Germany and West Berlin, a first move in plans to establish a separate West German state and a violation of the peace accords. 14. In response, Stalin blocked all traffic through the Soviet zone of Germany to Berlin. 15. The Western allies coordinated around-the-clock flights of hundreds of planes over the Soviet roadblocks, supplying provisions to West Berliners and thwarting Soviet efforts to swallow up the western half of the city, and the Soviets backed down after 324 days. 16. Breaking the Berlin blockade paved the way for the creation, in 1949, of two separate German states: the Federal Republic of West Germany, aligned with the United States, and the German Democratic Republic (or East Germany), aligned with the Soviet Union. 17. In 1949 the United States formed NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization), an anti-Soviet military alliance of Western governments. 18. The Soviets countered by organizing the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance among the satellite nations of eastern Europe, dividing Europe politically and militarily into two hostile blocs. 19. The Cold War spread when the Soviet-backed communist army of North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950; President Truman swiftly intervened with U.S. troops, but it was not until 1953 that a fragile truce was negotiated and the fighting stopped. 20. In the decade after World War II, the Soviet-American confrontation became institutionalized and formed the bedrock of the long Cold War era, which lasted until the mid-1980s, despite intermittent periods of relaxation. D. Big Science and New Technologies 1. With the advent of the Second World War, most leading university scientists went to work on top-secret projects to help their governments fight the war. 2. Radar used to detect enemy aircraft, the development of rocketry and jet aircraft that spurred further work on electronic computers, and the atomic bomb all showed the world both the awesome power and the heavy moral responsibilities of modern science. 3. By combining theoretical work with sophisticated engineering in a large organization, Big Science could tackle extremely difficult problems, from new and improved weapons for the military to better products for consumers. 4. In both the capitalist United States and the socialist Soviet Union, the government stepped in to provide generous funding for scientific activity. 5. A large portion of all postwar scientific research supported the growing Cold War arms race. 6. After 1945 roughly one-quarter of all men and women trained in science and engineering in the West—and perhaps more in the Soviet Union—were employed full-time in the production of weapons to kill other humans. 7. In 1957 the Soviets used long-range rockets developed in their nuclear weapons program to put a satellite in orbit, and they sent the world’s first cosmonaut circling the globe in 1961. 8. Embarrassed by Soviet triumphs, the United States made an all-out commitment to catch up with the Soviets and landed a crewed spacecraft on the moon in 1969, with four more moon landings by 1972. 9. The search for better weaponry in World War II had boosted the development of sophisticated data-processing machines, including the electronic Colossus computer used by the British to break German military codes. 10. The invention of the transistor in 1947 further hastened the spread of computers, and by the 1960s sophisticated computers were indispensable tools for a variety of military, commercial, and scientific uses. 11. During the postwar green revolution, directed research into agriculture greatly increased the world’s food supplies, as farming became more industrialized and more productive per acre. 12. The application of scientific techniques to industrial processes also made consumer goods less expensive and more readily available, creating new sources of material well-being and entertainment. II. The Western Renaissance A. The Search for Political and Social Consensus 1. After the war, infrastructure of all kinds barely functioned, and runaway inflation and a thriving black market testified to severe shortages and hardships, but the battered economies of western Europe began to turn the corner in 1948 as Marshall Plan dollars poured in. 2. Determined to avoid a return to the dangerous and demoralizing stagnation of the 1930s, postwar governments in western Europe embraced new political and economic policies that led to a remarkably lasting social consensus. 3. They turned to liberal democracy and generally adopted Keynesian economics, applying an imaginative mixture of government planning and free-market capitalism to promote economic growth. 4. Across the west, the Christian Democrats offered voters tired of radical politics a center-right vision of reconciliation and recovery. 5. The socialists and the communists, active in the resistance against Hitler, also provided fresh leadership and pushed for social change and economic reform after the war, especially in France and Italy. 6. The Christian Democrats, steadfast cold warriors, drew inspiration from a common Christian and European heritage, rejecting authoritarianism and narrow nationalism while championing a return to traditional family values. 7. In postwar West Germany, the Christian Democrats promoted a “social-market economy” based on a combination of free-market liberalism, some state intervention, and an extensive social welfare network. 8. In Great Britain, the social-democratic Labour Party took power after the war and made a remarkably ambitious effort to establish a “cradle to grave” welfare state. 9. In eastern and western Europe alike, state-sponsored welfare measures meant that, by the early 1960s, Europeans had more food, better homes, and longer lives than ever before. 10. Robust economic growth in the late 1950s and 1960s complemented political transformation and social reform, creating solid foundations for a new European stability. B. Toward European Unity 1. A number of new financial arrangements and institutions encouraged slow but steady moves toward European unity, as did cooperation with the United States. 2. The Bretton Woods agreement of 1944 had already linked Western currencies to the U.S. dollar and established the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank to facilitate free markets and world trade. 3. The close cooperation among European states required by the Americans for Marshall Plan aid led to the creation of the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) and the Council of Europe in 1948, both of which promoted international commerce and cooperation. 4. In 1950 two far-seeing French statesmen, the planner Jean Monnet and Foreign Minister Robert Schuman, called for a special international organization to control and integrate all European steel and coal production.