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1. Briefly describe the significance for the field of epidemiology of the following historical developments: a. Associating the environment with disease causality b. Use of vital statistics c. Use of natural experiments d. Identification of specific agents of disease 2. Explain what is meant by the following components of the definition of epidemiology: a. Determinants b. Distribution c. Morbidity d. Mortality 3. The following questions pertain to the term “epidemic”. a. What is meant by an epidemic? Give a definition in your own words. b. Describe a scenario in which only one or two cases of disease may represent an epidemic. c. What is one purpose of disease surveillance? d. Give an example of a disease that has cyclic patterns. 4. What are the characteristics that distinguish pandemic disease from epidemic disease? Name three examples of notorious pandemics that occurred in history. Why did the “Spanish Flu” of 1918 qualify as a pandemic? In giving your answer, be sure to distinguish among terms epidemic, endemic and pandemic. 5. Name one approach to prevention (primary, secondary, tertiary) of each of the following health problems/conditions: a. Motor vehicle accidents b. Obesity c. Hepatitis B and C d. Foodborne illness on cruise ships 6. Relate the seven applications of epidemiology to a public health issue of your choice. For example, “reduce health disparities”, to diagnose the health of a community might involve the identification of groups in the community that are at high risk for sexually transmitted disease. 7. Consider the use of epidemiology in the field of policy evaluation. How might the field of epidemiology inform policy evaluation of laws that regulate tobacco consumption in public places? 8. The following questions refer to Figure 2-3 below. a. Describe the trends in death rates by the five leading causes of death between 1960 and 2009. b. Describe the trend for hypertension and Parkinson’s disease. Can you suggest an explanation for the trends in hypertension and Parkinson’s disease deaths? c. What is the trend for Alzheimer’s disease? Can you offer an explanation? Figure 2-3: Age-adjusted death rates for selected leading causes of death: United States, from 1958 to 2008

  1. Briefly describe the significance for the field of epidemiology of the following historical developments:
    1. Associating the environment with disease causality
    2. Use of vital statistics
    3. Use of natural experiments
    4. Identification of specific agents of disease

 

  1. Explain what is meant by the following components of the definition of epidemiology:
    1. Determinants
    2. Distribution
    3. Morbidity
    4. Mortality

 

  1. The following questions pertain to the term “epidemic”.
    1. What is meant by an epidemic? Give a definition in your own words.
    2. Describe a scenario in which only one or two cases of disease may represent an epidemic.
    3. What is one purpose of disease surveillance?
    4. Give an example of a disease that has cyclic patterns.

 

  1. What are the characteristics that distinguish pandemic disease from epidemic disease? Name three examples of notorious pandemics that occurred in history. Why did the “Spanish Flu” of 1918 qualify as a pandemic? In giving your answer, be sure to distinguish among terms epidemic, endemic and pandemic.

 

  1. Name one approach to prevention (primary, secondary, tertiary) of each of the following health problems/conditions:
    1. Motor vehicle accidents
    2. Obesity
    3. Hepatitis B and C
    4. Foodborne illness on cruise ships

 

  1. Relate the seven applications of epidemiology to a public health issue of your choice. For example, “reduce health disparities”, to diagnose the health of a community might involve the identification of groups in the community that are at high risk for sexually transmitted disease.

 

  1. Consider the use of epidemiology in the field of policy evaluation. How might the field of epidemiology inform policy evaluation of laws that regulate tobacco consumption in public places?

 

  1. The following questions refer to Figure 2-3 below.
    1. Describe the trends in death rates by the five leading causes of death between 1960 and 2009.
    2. Describe the trend for hypertension and Parkinson’s disease. Can you suggest an explanation for the trends in hypertension and Parkinson’s disease deaths?
    3. What is the trend for Alzheimer’s disease? Can you offer an explanation?

 

Figure 2-3: Age-adjusted death rates for selected leading causes of death: United States, from 1958 to 2008

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